Thailand

81,521 people in Thailand die as a result of tobacco-related diseases every year and smoking prevalence is particularly high among males.[1] The tobacco industry in Thailand is mainly controlled by Tobacco Authority of Thailand (TOAT), formerly Thailand Tobacco Monopoly (TTM).

Smoking Prevalence

The adult smoking prevalence in 2018 was 17.7% or 9.71 million people (with 35% or 9.29 million males and 1.5% or 423.000 females).[2]

Cigarette Retail Price

The retail prices of cigarettes sold in Thailand increased on average by THB 0.30 (US$ 0.01) to THB 0.76 (US$ 0.02) due to a 3% excise tax increase in February 2016; when the Excise Act 2017 was passed, prices further rose in 2018.[3]

Tobacco Farming

In 2016 the total number of tobacco farmers in Thailand was 22,075.[4] Thailand has two Tobacco Farmer Associations working to support the transnational tobacco industry such as Philip Morris International (PMI) and state-owned tobacco companies like TOAT.

Tobacco Leaf Production

According to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)[5] the information of tobacco leaf production in Thailand in 2018 as presented in the table below;

ElementValue
Area harvested19,585.00Im ha
Yield34,328.00Fc hg/ha
Production67,230.00Im tonnes

FC: Calculated data
Im: FAO data based on imputation methodology

Who Dominates the Market?

TOAT’s market share – while still the largest in Thailand – has dwindled in recent years despite aggressive marketing, the introduction of new brands, and competitive pricing measures. TOAT held 55.4% of the market share in 2018, down from 70.5% in 2017. Meanwhile, second-placed PMI’s share has seen an increase in the same time period, increasing to 39.3% in 2018 from 20% in 2017 in large part due to the success of its L&M 7.1 brand of cigarettes. JTI’s market share slightly decreased from 4.0% is 2017 to 3.5% in 2018.[6]

Roadmap to Tobacco Control

Thailand ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control on 8 November 2004 and has become a Party to the treaty on 27 February 2005.[7] The Tobacco Products Control Act and the Non-Smokers Health Protection Act was in effect in Thailand since 1992. The WHO FCTC has acted as a driving mechanism for the improvement of tobacco control laws and policies in Thailand. 

Tobacco Control Legislation in Thailand[8]

1992The Tobacco Products Control Act was passed on 29 March 1992, governing packaging and labeling of tobacco products and tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The Non-Smokers Health Protection Act was passed on 7 April 1992, governing restrictions on smoking in public places, workplaces, and on public transportation.
2005Directive Procedures for Distribution of Tobacco Products went into effect on 24 September 2005.
2006

Notification of the Ministry of Public Health (No. 11) B.E.2549 (A.D. 2006) Re : Criteria, procedures and conditions for displaying pictures and statements relating to warning on harm; date, month and year of manufacture; manufacturing source and sale only in the Kingdom of Thailand on labels of cigarettes and cigars, issued under the Tobacco Products Control Act B.E. 2535

Notification of the Ministry of Public Health (No. 12) B.E.2549 (A.D. 2006) Re: Criteria, procedures and conditions for displaying words or statements that may cause misunderstanding on labels of cigarettes, cigars and tobacco, issued under the Tobacco Products Control Act B.E. 2535

2007

Notification of the Ministry of Public Health (No. 13) 2550 (A.D. 2007) Re: Criteria, procedures and conditions for displaying pictorial labels and statements of warning on harm of cigars, issued under the Tobacco Products Control Act B.E. 2535 (A.D. 1992)

Notification of the Ministry of Public Health (No. 14) B.E.2550 (A.D. 2007) Re: Criteria, procedures and conditions for displaying pictorial labels and statements of warning on harm of tobacco, issued under the Tobacco Products Control Act B.E.2535 (A.D. 1992)

Notification of the Ministry of Public Health (No. 18) B.E.2550 (A.D. 2007) Re: Designating names and types of public places where non-smoker’s health is under protection and assigning a zone or area of such places to be smoking area or non-smoking area, and prescribing conditions, nature and standard of smoking or non-smoking area pursuant to the Protection of Non-Smoker’s Health Act B.E. 2535 (A.D. 1992)

Notification of the Ministry of Public Health B.E.2550 (A.D. 2007) Re: Conditions and appearance of smoking areas issued under the Non-Smoker’s Health Protection Act B.E. 2535 (1992)

2010

Regulation of Department of Disease Control Re: how to contact tobacco entrepreneurs and related persons B.E. 2553 (2010)

Ministry of Public Health Notice (Volume 19) 2010. Designation of names and types of public places that shall protect the health of non-smokers and designating all or part of such public places as smoking areas or tobacco-free areas, under the Non-Smokers’ Health Protection Act of 1992

2011

Ministry of Public Health Notice of Rules, Procedures, and Conditions for the Display of Statements Concerning Toxins and Carcinogens on Cigarette Labels under the Tobacco Products Control Act of 1992 (Number 16) 2011

Notification of the Ministry of Public Health (No. 15) B.E. 2554 (A.D. 2011) Re: Criteria, procedures and conditions of words or statements revealing which may lead to misunderstanding or consumed motivation on the labels of cigarette, cigar, shredded tobacco or blended shredded tobacco pursuant to Tobacco Product Control Act B.E. 2535 (A.D. 1992)

2012Notification of the Ministry of Public Health Re: Criteria, procedures and conditions for displaying pictures, statements relating to warning on harm and contact channels to quit tobacco on labels of shredded tobacco and blended shredded tobacco pursuant to Tobacco Product Control Act, B.E. 2535 (A.D. 1992) (No. 17) B.E. 2555 (A.D.2012)
2013Notification of the Ministry of Public Health Re: Criteria, procedures and conditions for displaying pictures, statements relating to warning on harm and contact channels to quit tobacco on labels of cigarettes B.E. 2556 (A.D. 2013)
2015Notification of the Ministry of Public Health – Re: Criteria, procedures, conditions for displaying statements about dangers and hazards of consuming tobacco products on cigarette label pursuant to Tobacco Product Control Act B.E. 2535 (A.D. 1992) (No.18) B.E. 2558 (A.D.2015)
2016Regulation of the Ministry of Public Health on communication between the authorities and operators or concerned persons of tobacco products B.E. 2559 (A.D.2016)
2017

The Thailand Excise Law 2017 was passed on 18 March 2017

The Tobacco Product Control Act B.E. 2560 (2017) was passed on 4 July 2017

2018Notification of the Ministry of Public Health – Subject: Criteria, methods and conditions on tobacco product and cigarette packaging B.E. 2561 (2018)

  

[1] https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/272690/wntd_2018_thailand_fs.pdf?sequence=1
[2] Global Data, The Smoking Population, Cigarettes in Thailand, 2019, page 28-30
[3] Ibid, Retail prices, page 25
[4] http://www.agriinfo.doae.go.th/year60/plant/rortor/agronomy/31.Tobacco.pdf
[5] Tobacco Production Quantity by Country, FAO Data: Food and Agriculture Organization <http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=FAO&f=itemCode%3a826>
[6] Global Data, overview, Cigarettes in Thailand, 2019, page 5
[7] https://www.who.int/fctc/reporting/tha/en/
[8] https://seatca.org/resource-center-asean-tc-thailand/

Updated May 2020

Smoking in Thailand

81,521 people in Thailand die as a result of tobacco-related diseases every year and smoking prevalence is particularly high among males.[1] The tobacco industry in Thailand is mainly controlled by Tobacco Authority of Thailand (TOAT), formerly Thailand Tobacco Monopoly (TTM).  The adult smoking prevalence in 2018 was 17.7% or 9.71 million people (with 35% or 9.29 million males and 1.5% or 423.000 females).[2]

Tobacco taxes and prices in Thailand

The retail prices of cigarettes sold in Thailand increased on average by THB 0.30 (US$ 0.01) to THB 0.76 (US$ 0.02) due to a 3% excise tax increase in February 2016; when the Excise Act 2017 was passed, prices further rose in 2018.[3]

Tobacco farming

In 2016 the total number of tobacco farmers in Thailand was 22,075.[4] Thailand has two Tobacco Farmer Associations working to support the transnational tobacco industry such as Philip Morris International (PMI) and state-owned tobacco companies like TOAT.

Who dominates the market?

TAOT’s market share – while still the largest in Thailand – has dwindled in recent years despite aggressive marketing, the introduction of new brands, and competitive pricing measures. TAOT held 55.4% of the market share in 2018, down from 70.5% in 2017. Meanwhile, second-placed PMI’s share has seen an increase in the same time period, increasing to 39.3% in 2018 from 20% in 2017 in large part due to the success of its L&M 7.1 brand of cigarettes. JTI’s market share slightly decreased from 4.0% is 2017 to 3.5% in 2018.[5]

Roadmap to tobacco control

Thailand ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control on 8 November 2004 and has become a Party to the treaty on 27 February 2005.[6] The Tobacco Products Control Act and the Non-Smokers Health Protection Act was in effect in Thailand since 1992. The WHO FCTC has acted as a driving mechanism for the improvement of tobacco control laws and policies in Thailand. Tobacco Control Legislation in Thailand[7]

1992The Tobacco Products Control Act was passed on 29 March 1992, governing packaging and labeling of tobacco products and tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The Non-Smokers Health Protection Act was passed on 7 April 1992, governing restrictions on smoking in public places, workplaces, and on public transportation.
2005Directive Procedures for Distribution of Tobacco Products went into effect on 24 September 2005.
2006Notification of the Ministry of Public Health (No. 11) B.E.2549 (A.D. 2006) Re : Criteria, procedures and conditions for displaying pictures and statements relating to warning on harm; date, month and year of manufacture; manufacturing source and sale only in the Kingdom of Thailand on labels of cigarettes and cigars, issued under the Tobacco Products Control Act B.E. 2535
Notification of the Ministry of Public Health (No. 12) B.E.2549 (A.D. 2006) Re: Criteria, procedures and conditions for displaying words or statements that may cause misunderstanding on labels of cigarettes, cigars and tobacco, issued under the Tobacco Products Control Act B.E. 2535
2007Notification of the Ministry of Public Health (No. 13) 2550 (A.D. 2007) Re: Criteria, procedures and conditions for displaying pictorial labels and statements of warning on harm of cigars, issued under the Tobacco Products Control Act B.E. 2535 (A.D. 1992)
Notification of the Ministry of Public Health (No. 14) B.E.2550 (A.D. 2007) Re: Criteria, procedures and conditions for displaying pictorial labels and statements of warning on harm of tobacco, issued under the Tobacco Products Control Act B.E.2535 (A.D. 1992)
Notification of the Ministry of Public Health (No. 18) B.E.2550 (A.D. 2007) Re: Designating names and types of public places where non-smoker’s health is under protection and assigning a zone or area of such places to be smoking area or non-smoking area, and prescribing conditions, nature and standard of smoking or non-smoking area pursuant to the Protection of Non-Smoker’s Health Act B.E. 2535 (A.D. 1992)
Notification of the Ministry of Public Health B.E.2550 (A.D. 2007) Re: Conditions and appearance of smoking areas issued under the Non-Smoker’s Health Protection Act B.E. 2535 (1992)
2010Regulation of Department of Disease Control Re: how to contact tobacco entrepreneurs and related persons B.E. 2553 (2010)
Ministry of Public Health Notice (Volume 19) 2010. Designation of names and types of public places that shall protect the health of non-smokers and designating all or part of such public places as smoking areas or tobacco-free areas, under the Non-Smokers’ Health Protection Act of 1992
2011Ministry of Public Health Notice of Rules, Procedures, and Conditions for the Display of Statements Concerning Toxins and Carcinogens on Cigarette Labels under the Tobacco Products Control Act of 1992 (Number 16) 2011
Notification of the Ministry of Public Health (No. 15) B.E. 2554 (A.D. 2011) Re: Criteria, procedures and conditions of words or statements revealing which may lead to misunderstanding or consumed motivation on the labels of cigarette, cigar, shredded tobacco or blended shredded tobacco pursuant to Tobacco Product Control Act B.E. 2535 (A.D. 1992)
2012Notification of the Ministry of Public Health Re: Criteria, procedures and conditions for displaying pictures, statements relating to warning on harm and contact channels to quit tobacco on labels of shredded tobacco and blended shredded tobacco pursuant to Tobacco Product Control Act, B.E. 2535 (A.D. 1992) (No. 17) B.E. 2555 (A.D.2012)
2013Notification of the Ministry of Public Health Re: Criteria, procedures and conditions for displaying pictures, statements relating to warning on harm and contact channels to quit tobacco on labels of cigarettes B.E. 2556 (A.D. 2013)
2015Notification of the Ministry of Public Health – Re: Criteria, procedures, conditions for displaying statements about dangers and hazards of consuming tobacco products on cigarette label pursuant to Tobacco Product Control Act B.E. 2535 (A.D. 1992) (No.18) B.E. 2558 (A.D.2015)
2016Regulation of the Ministry of Public Health on communication between the authorities and operators or concerned persons of tobacco products B.E. 2559 (A.D.2016)
2017The Thailand Excise Law 2017 was passed on 18 March 2017
The Tobacco Product Control Act B.E. 2560 (2017) was passed on 4 July 2017
2018Notification of the Ministry of Public Health – Subject: Criteria, methods and conditions on tobacco product and cigarette packaging B.E. 2561 (2018)

[1] https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/272690/wntd_2018_thailand_fs.pdf?sequence=1
[2] Global Data, The Smoking Population, Cigarettes in Thailand, 2019, page 28-30
[3] Ibid, Retail prices, page 25
[4] http://www.agriinfo.doae.go.th/year60/plant/rortor/agronomy/31.Tobacco.pdf
[5] Global Data, overview, Cigarettes in Thailand, 2019, page 5
[6] https://www.who.int/fctc/reporting/tha/en/
[7] https://seatca.org/resource-center-asean-tc-thailand/